http://geocities.com/Heartland/Flats/3950/ScotlandinHistory.html geocities.com/heartland/flats/3950 FRANG'S_HOMEPAGE

Go to Sinclair Clan Gathering 2000!

Go To Princes Street, Edinburgh!

A TIME LINE IN HISTORY

11/01/* Samhain: The beginning of the Celtic New Year

11/01/1884 Gaelic Athletic Association founded.

11/02/1853 Association for Vindication of Scottish Rights (Home Rule organization) founded in Edinburgh

11/04/1698 Foundation of Scotland's only New World colony, New Caledonia, at Darien, Isthmus of Panama

11/07/1974 Eric Linklater, Scottish novelist born in Wales, author of The Survival of Scotland, died.

11/08/1745 Charles Stuart invades England at the head of the Jacobite army.

11/08/1752 James Stewart of the Glen, Scottish Jacobite, executed by English after wrongful conviction for the murder of Colin Campbell of Glenure

11/11/* Closing of Samhain, Christianized as the Feast of Martinmas.

11/12/* St. Machar Day (patron saint of Aberdeen)

11/13/1647 Battle of Cnoc na nOs - Alasdair mac Colla, Scottish military leader, dies fighting on the Irish side against Cromwell's troops.

11/13/1850 Birth of Robert Louis Stevenson, Scottish novelist and poet.

11/16/1745 English army sets out from newcastle in vain attempt to stop Scottish Jacobite invasion of England.

11/17/1745 James VIII of Scotland proclaimed King for first time on English soil, as James III

11/17/1858 Robert Owen, Welsh-Scottish industrialist and utopian socialist, founder of New Lanark community, died.

11/18/* Traditional St. Fergus Day

11/20/1759 French-Jacobite invasion of Britain turned back at the Battle of Quiberon Bay, Brittany.

11/21/1638 General Assembly of "faithful" meets in Glasgow, Scotland without representation of religious hierarchy.

11/23/1847 Walter Biggar Blaikie, Scottish historian, born.

11/25/1835 Birth of Andrew Carnegie, American industrialist and global philanthropist, at Dunfermline

11/26/1836 John Loudon McAdam, Scottish engineer who developed the macadam road, died.

11/28/1666 Battle of Rullion Green, where the King's army defeated covenanters at Galloway.

11/30/* St. Andrew's Day: Patron Saint of Scotland

Robertson

DECEMBER (an Dubhlachd)

12/02/1837 Joseph Bell, noted Scottish surgeon and inspiration for Sherlock Holmes, born.

12/03/1894 Robert Louis Stevenson, Scottish author, died.

12/04/1795 Thomas Carlyle, Scottish historian, born.

12/08/1524 Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, born.

12/10/1924 George MacDonald, Scottish novelist, poet, creator of children's fairy stories, born.

12/11/1781 David Brewster, Scottish inventor of the kaleidoscope, born.

12/11/1792 Scottish Friends of the People, an early Republican movement, formed.

12/14/1542 James V, last king of independent Scotland, died.

12/15/1746 Jacobite victory at the Battle of Falkirk

12/21/* Alban Arthan - Welsh Bardic name for winter solstice

12/24/* Christmas Eve

12/25/* Christmas Day

12/25/1836 Domhnail MacEacharn, Scottish Gaelic poet, born.

12/25/1950 Scottish nationalists repossess the Stone of Scone from Westminster Abbey.

12/26/* Boxing Day (UK Holiday)

12/26/* Wren Day ancient Celtic custom observed in all the Celtic nations.

12/29/1766 Charles Macintosh, Scottish inventor of ruberized raincoat (the macintosh) born.

12/31/* Hogmanay - Cake Day - gifts of oatmeal cake were given on eve of Julian year in Scotland.

12/31/1720 Charles Edward Stuart born.

Robertson Tartan

JANUARY (an Faoilteach)

01/01/* Ne'er Day / Secular New Year's Day

01/03/1590 Robert Boyd, prominent statesman of independent Scotland, died.

01/05/* Auld Yule (traditional Twelfth Night)

01/05/1984 Ronald MacDonald Douglas, prominent Scottish nationalist, died.

01/06/* Feast of Epiphany, or Uphalieday

01/11/* Traditional Day for the Burning of the Clavie, Burghead

01/17/1746 Last Jacobite victory at the Battle of Falkirk.

01/22/1788 George Gordon (Byron), Scottish author of Don Juan, born.

01/25/* Burns Night

01/25/1759 Robert Burns, Scottish poet, born in Alloway.

01/29/1746 Scottish Jacobite army begins retreat, resorting to scorched-earth tactics to delay advancing Anglo-Dutch forces.

01/30/1649 Execution of Charles II, London

01/31/* Traditional day of Up-Helly-Aa, the burning of the Viking ship, Lerwick, Shetland Islands Jacobite

FEBRUARY (an Gearran)

02/01/* Imbolc - Feast of Goddess Brigit - Celtic fertility day.

02/02/* Candlemas

02/02/* Day for Fastern's E'en Ba'Game

02/04/1716 James VIII of Scotland escapes to France, concluding the Jacobite rising of 1715.

02/05/1840 John Boyd Dunlop, Scottish inventor of the pneumatic rubber tire, born.

02/05/1881 Thomas Carlyle, Scottish historian and essayist, died.

02/07/1313 Robert the Bruce captures Dumfries, Scotland.

02/07/1823 George Washington Wilson, Scottish artist and pioneer photographer, born.

02/08/1587 Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, executed by the English.

02/09/1292 First Scottish Parliament assembles at Scone.

02/10/1306 Robert the Bruce murders John the Red Comyn, Dumfries

02/11/1847 Macvey Napier, a Scottish editor of Encyclopedia Britannica, died.

02/13/1692 Massacre of Glencoe, Scotland.

02/14/* Saint Valentine's Day

02/20/1436 James I of Scotland assassinated.

02/20/1847 Scottish Potato Famine - at Wick, Caithness, crowd tried to prevent departure of grain ship but were held back by soldiers.

02/23/1874 Hugh Stevenson Robertson, Scottish composer of the Song of the Isles, born.

02/24/1303 English invasion of Scotland annihilated at the Battle of Roslin.

02/28/1912 Scottish Home Rule Bill, patterned on the Irish bill, introduced in English parliament

Gunn Tartan

MARCH (an Mart)

03/01/* Whuppity Scoorie, Lanarkshire, a holiday for children, somewhat similar to Halloween, with ancient Celtic origins marking the beginning of spring; most famous for the annual fist fights between the boys of Lanark and New Lanark

03/02/1316 Birth of Robert II of Scotland ensures royal succession of Robert the Bruce

03/03/1847 Alexander Graham Bell, Scottish inventor of the telephone, born in Edinburgh

03/05/1790 Flora MacDonald, Scottish patriot, died.

03/06/1725 Last claimant to the Stuart throne, Henry I of Scotland (Henry IX of England), younger brother of Charles Edward, born.

03/08/1899 Eric Linklater, Scottish writer, born in Wales.

03/10/* St. Kessoc Day, celebrated in Lennox and Perthshire (St. Kessoc was the patron saint of Scotland before Saint Andrew was so recognized.)

03/17/0373 Birth of St. Patrick, patron saint of Ireland, probably in Dumbarton, celebrated as St. Patrick's Day.

03/17/1328 Treaty of Edinburgh, by which England recognized the sovereignty of Scotland

03/18/1258 Scottish earls pledge common cause with Llywelyn ap Gruffydd (last legitimate Prince of Wales) against the English.

03/19/1286 Alexander III of Scotland, died.

03/19/1927 James "Scott" Skinner, renowned Scottish fiddler, died.

03/20/* Alban Eilir - Welsh Bardic name for the Spring Equinox

03/20/1724 Duncan Bain Macintyre, Scottish Gaelic poet, born.

03/24/1603 James VI of Scotland also became James I of England, Wales, and Ireland.

03/25/1306 Robert the Bruce crowned Robert I, King of Scots, at Scone.

03/26/1894 Alexander Thom, Scottish megalithic archaeologist, born.

03/27/1625 James I (James VI of Scotland) died.

03/29/1813 Dr. David Livingstone ("I presume"), Scottish explorer, born.

03/30/* St. Regulus Day

03/31/1844 Andrew Lang, Scottish historian, born.

Sinclair Tartan

APRIL (an Giblean)

04/01/* Hunt the Gowk (April Fool's Day)

04/01/1820 Scottish Insurrection of 1820 begins

04/03/1603 Banning of the Clan MacGregor by act of James VI of Scotland

04/03/1617 John Napier, Scottish inventor of logarithms, born.

04/05/1820 Cathkin Braes - first battle of the Scottish Insurrection of 1820

04/06/* Tartan Day - celebrating Scottish heritage in the United States

04/06/1320 Declaration of Arbroath (Aberbrothock, Scotland)

04/06/1985 Willie McRae, Secretary of the Scottish National Party, died under mysterious circumstances, believed assassinated.

04/09/1139 Second Treaty of Durham. David I of Scotland recognized as independent ruler by the Normans.

04/12/1700 Abandonment of Scotland's only New World settlement, Caledonia, at Darien, Isthmus of Panama.

04/13/1996 George MacKay Brown, poet and novelist of the Orkney Islands, died.

04/14/1582 University of Edinburgh founded.

04/15/1710 William Cullen, Scottish physicist, born.

04/16/* St. Brendan the Voyager Day (patron saint of Bute)

04/16/1746 Battle of Culloden

Go to Flowers in the Forest!

04/17/1341 Edinburgh Castle taken from the English, reversing English encroachments against independent Scotland.

04/20/1934 Scottish National Party founded.

04/26/1711 David Hume, Scottish philosopher, born.

MAY (an Ceitean)

05/01/* Bealtaine/Beltane - Feast of the beginning of summer. Go to Druid Festival!

05/01/1690 Jacobite defeat at the Haughs of Cromdale, Scotland. Go to Haughs of Cromdale!

05/03/1758 James Taylor, Scottish inventor of the steamboat, born.

05/04/1645 Battle of Auldcarn, Scotland. A Montrose victory.

05/07/1906 Henry Gray Grahm, Scottish historian and author of Social Life of Scotland in the 18th Century, died.

05/10/1559 John Knox's sermon launches Scottish religious revolution.

05/10/1809 Andrew Bell, Scottish engraver, co-founder with Colin MacFarquhar of Encyclopedia Britannica, died.

05/12/0563 Community of Iona founded in Scotland by Colum Cille and followers from Ireland

05/17/1810 Robert Tannahill, Scottish songwriter, died.

05/18/1313 Robert the Bruce lands on the Isle of Mann to wrest it from English rule.

05/18/1689 Dundee gathers forces in Lochaber, Scotland

05/19/1795 James Boswell, Scottish biographer of Samuel Johnson, died.

05/20/0685 Battle of Nechtansmere, Northumbrian invasion of Scotland (then Pictland)defeated by Pictish King Bruide

Go To Pictish King

05/21/1650 James Graham (Montrose), Scottish royalist commander, executed by Cromwellian government.

05/22/1859 Arthur Conan Doyle, Scottish author, born.

05/25/* Flitting Day - the day on which leases were up in Scotland. Tenants decided if they would sign another lease or move - to sit or to flit.

05/25/1315 Irish ally, Edward Bruce of Scotland, arrives in Ireland.

JUNE (an t-Og-mhios)

06/02/1581 James Douglas, Scottish inventor of the guillotine (the Maiden) guillotined.

06/05/1723 Adam Smith, economic philosopher born in Kirkcaldy, author of The Wealth of Nations

06/05/1868 James Connolly, Irish revolutionary hero, born in Edinburgh Scotland

06/07/1329 Death of Robert I (Robert the Bruce)

06/07/1998 British Government recognizes Gaelic as a "Regional or Minority Language."

06/08/1333 Edward III of England orders the seizure of the Isle of Mann from the Scots.

06/10/* White Rose Day (Jacobite holiday); birthday of James Francis Edward Stuart, son of James II, known as "the old Pretender".

06/12/1298 William Wallace routs the English at the Battle of Black Ironside.

06/14/1946 John Logie Baird, Scottish inventor of television, died.

06/18/1633 Crowning of King Charles I

06/18/1639 Pacification of Berwick, Charles I of England forced to withdraw from Scotland and to recognize an independent Scottish Parliament.

06/19/1566 Birth of James VI of Scotland (James I of England), son of Mary, Queen of Scots, born in Edinburgh Castle

06/1mid-month Peebles' Riding of the Marches

06/21/* Alban Hefin - Welsh Bardic name for the Summer Solstice, the longest day of the year.

06/21/1919 German Fleet scuttled in Scapa Flow

06/22/1679 Duke of Monmouth defeated Convenanters, Bothwell Bridge

06/23/* Midsummer's Eve - ancient solar festival celebrated with bonfires.

06/23/1868 Malt Riots, Glasgow: against high taxes imposed on Scottish malt.

06/23/1971 Mass Protests against the closure of John Brown's shipyard.

06/24/1314 Robert the Bruce's greatest victory over the English in the Battle of Bannockburn

06/24/1886 Crofters Act passed

06/26/1695 Scottish East India Company organized to break English monopoly on East Asian trade.

06/28/1746 Charles Edward Stuart and Flora MacDonald escape over the sea to Skye.

06/30/1857 Start of the Madeleine Smith trial

JULY (an t-luchar)

07/01/1940 David Steel became leader of the Liberal party.

07/02/1266 Norway surrendered the Hebrides to Scotland by the Treaty of Perth, ending Viking domination of the islands since the 8th century.

07/02/1645 Montrose won the Battle of Alford

07/02/1745 Prince Charles Edward Stuart sails for Scotland from Nantes, Brittany with seven companions

07/02/1782 Repeal of the Proscription Act of 1746

07/02/1903 Lord Home of the Hirsel, British Prime Minister, born

07/03/1728 Robert Adam, architect, born

07/03/1928 John Logie Baird transmitted first colour television

07/04/* Independence Day, United States

07/06/1747 Birthday of John Paul Jones, Kirkbean

07/07/1925 Kelvin Hall exhibition building, Glasgow, destroyed by fire.

07/07/1930 Arthur Conan Doyle, Scottish author and creator of Sherlock Holmes, died.

07/11/1274 Robert the Bruce born at Turnberry Castle, Carrick.

07/11/1924 Eric Liddell won Olympic 400 metres in Paris

07/12/1690 William III defeated the exiled James II at the Battle of Boyne in Ireland.

07/19/1896 Archibald Joseph Cronin, Scottish author and the original "Dr. Findlay," born.

07/21/1796 Death of Robert Burns, Dumfries, Scotland

07/22/1298 Battle of Falkirk, where Edward I of England defeated the Scots under William Wallace.

07/24/1411 Defeat of Clan Donald at the Battle of Harlaw, near Aberdeen

07/24/1567 Mary Queen of Scots forced to abdicate her throne by English-backed Scottish nobility. James VI became King.

07/25/1843 Charles Macintosh, Scottish inventor of the rubberized fabric raincoat (macintosh) died.

07/27/1689 Jacobite victory at the Battle of Killiecrankie

AUGUST (an Lunasdal)

08/01/* Lughnasadh - Feast of the Celtic God Lugh, a 30-day agrarian feast with this day as the center.

08/05/1745 Charles Edward Stuart lands at Borradale, Scotland.

08/06/1861 Alexander Fleming, Scottish discoverer of penicillin, born.

08/11/1746 The Proscription Act outlawed kilts, tartans, and bagpipes.

08/11/1892 Hugh MacDiarmid (Christopher Murray Grieve), poet and Scottish nationalist, born.

08/13/1880 Mary Reid Anderson, Scottish women's labor leader, born.

08/14/1040 Duncan I killed in battle by Macbeth at Pitgavney

08/15/1057 Macbeth, King of Scots, killed in battle by Malcolm at the Battle of Lumphanan

08/15/1388 Battle of Otterburn, Scotland - many English knights captured.

08/15/1771 Birth of Sir Walter Scott, Edinburgh

08/17/1714 George MacKenzie, Scottish patron of books, died.

08/18/1746 William Boyd of Kilmarnock, Scottish Jacobite leader, executed by the English.

08/18/1773 James Boswell drags Samuel Johnson on the famous "Tour of the Hebrides".

08/19/1745 Bonnie Prince Charlie raised the Jacobite standard at Glenfinnan, Start of the '45 Uprising.

08/21/1689 Battle of Dunkeld, high point of Scottish Jacobite uprising.

08/22/1847 Alexander Campbell Mackenzie, Scottish composer, conductor, and violinist, born.

08/23/1305 William Wallace, Scottish patriot, hanged, disemboweled, beheaded, and quartered, in London.

08/24/1565 Earl of Murray's rebellion against Mary Queen of Scots failed.

08/26/1875 John Buchan, Scottish author of the 39 Steps, born.

08/27/1825 William Blake, Scottish explorer of Africa, born.

08/30/1820 James Wilson, Scottish patriot, hanged from his role in the "Rising of 1820"

SEPTEMBER (an t-Sultain)

09/01/* St. Giles Day (patron saint of Edinburgh and Elgin)

09/01/1643 Battle of Tippermuir - Highland army under Montrose defeats larger army of covenanters (despite their battle cry of "Jesus and No Quarter")

09/02/* Traditional date for the Braemar Gathering, perhaps the most famous of all Highland Games

09/05/1750 Robert Fergusson, Scottish poet, born.

09/06/1715 First Jacobite rebellion (the "15") begins as the standard of James III is raised at the Braes of Mar, Aberdeenshire, Scotland.

09/09/1513 James IV of Scotland killed at the Battle of Flodden, a humiliating defeat for the Scots at the hands of the English.

09/10/1297 William Wallace seizes the high ground above Stirling Bridge and bars route of invading English in battle the following day.

09/11/1297 Victory of Scots under William Wallace and Andrew Murray at the Battle of Stirling Bridge

Go To William Wallace Saga!

09/12/1715 Battle of Sheriffmuir, Scotland, where the Jacobites routed the forces loyal to the Protestant House of Hanover.

Go ToScotClans Battle !

09/12/1855 "Fiona MacLeod" (William Sharp) Scottish poet and author, born.

09/13/1912 In a speech at Dundee, Winston Churchill announces his support of a policy of devolution for Ireland, Scotland, and Wales.

09/15/* St. Mirren Day (patron saint of Paisley)

09/16/* St. Ninian Day

09/18/1905 George MacDonald, Scottish novelist, poet, creator of children's fairy stories, died.

09/1mid-month Largs Viking Festival

09/20/1842 James Dewar, Scottish inventor of the thermos and the steel vacuum flask called a "dewar," born.

09/21/1745 Battle of Prestonpans, where a Jacobite army under Lord George Murray routed an English army under Sir John Cope.

09/23/* Alban Elfed - Welsh Bardic name for autumn equinox.

09/29/* Feast of Michaelmas

OCTOBER (an Damhair)

10/01/1263 Invasion of Scotland by Hakon, King of Norway, attacked on beaches by gathering Scottish forces, beginning the Battle of the Largs.

10/02/1854 Patrick Geddes, Scottish botanist, born.

10/04/1780 Alexander Laing, Scottish explorer of Africa, born.

10/05/1263 Norwegians abandon invasion of Scotland, leaving ships and wounded on the beach, ending their domination of the Hebrides.

10/09/1935 Archibald Thorburn, Scottish ornithologist and painter, died.

10/11/1974 Establishment of Celtic League, American Branch.

10/14/1322 Victory of Robert the Bruce in Yorkshire.

10/15/1686 Alan Ramsay, Scottish poet, born.

10/16/1774 Robert Fergusson, Scottish poet, born.

10/18/* Feast of St. Luke

10/23/1921 John Boyd Dunlop, Scottish inventor of the pneumatic rubber tire, died.

10/26/1911 Somhairle MacGhilleathain (Sorley MacLean), Scottish Gaelic poet, born.

10/27/1736 John Macpherson, Scottish "translator" of Ossianic poems, born.

10/30/1300 Edward of England signs truce and abandons invasion of Scoltand.

10/31/* Nos Calan Gaef - Celtic New Year's Eve.


ANNIVERSARIES IN 2005


c2500BC 4505th of stone cairns in Caithness

795 AD 1210th of Vikings in Western Seas

800 1205th of Vikings invading the Channel Coast

875 1130th of the first Earl of Caithness

875 1130th of Sigurd, brother of Rognvald, Earl of Moeri invades Caithness

890 1115th of death of Rognvald

c.900 1105th of Einar, son of Rognvald, builds castle at Knock Einar now Knockinnon in Caithness

c935 1070th of Northern Britain being known as Scotland rather than Caledonia, Pictavia or Alban

1245 760th of Gilbert of Moray, Bishop of Caithness, Saint, social worker and reformer dies

1290 715th of drowning of Margaret, the Maid of Norway, off Orkney

1320 685th of the Declaration of Arbroath - the letter to the Pope asserting Scotland's independence and signed by Earl Magnus of Caithness and Orkney and Henry Sinclair of Rosslyn

1330 675th of the Battle of Teba, Andulsia, Spain. Sir William Sinclair dies trying to carry Robert the Bruce's heart to the Holy Land

c.1350 655th of King David II of Scotland declaring "ane common and equal weicht, quhilk is called weicht of Caithness (pondus Cathaniae) in buying and selling sall be keeped and used by all men within this realm."

1398 607nd of Prince Henry's Voyage to the New World

1400 605th of Prince Henry, Earl of Orkney's, death in Orkney

1420 585th of Henry 2nd Earl of Orkney's death

1470 525th of William, 1st Earl of Caithness being forced to resign Earldom of Orkney

1505 500th of death of William 2nd Earl of Caithness

1560 445th of John Knox (mother was a Sinclair) founds Presbyterian church in Scotland

1658 437nd of John Sinkler's arrival as an indentured servant in Exeter, NH

1680 325th of the Battle of Altimarlach - the last clan battle in Scotland fought between the Sinclairs and Campbells

1680 325th of Robert Sinclair settling in New York

1705 300th of death of John 8th Earl

1715 290th of Battle of Sherrifmuir. David Sinclair of Brabsterdorran fights for Jacobite cause

1765 240th of death of Alexander 9th Earl

1790 215th of Sir John Sinclair of Ulbster's Statistical Account of Scotland

1855 150th of death of Alexander 13th Earl succeeded by James

1965 40th of Malcolm, current chief, inheriting the Earldom of Caithness from his father

1965 1995 10th of John inheriting the Viscountcy of Thurso from hisfather

Famous Scots in History

Robert Adam (1728 - 1792) An architect noted for his elegant terraces in the New Town of Edinburgh, together with many fine public buildings and also much Georgian development in London. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir (Robert) Rowand Anderson (1834 - 1921) Born in Edinburgh, Anderson was Scotland's leading architect around the turn of the century. He worked in many styles from 'Scottish Gothic' through to classical, and his public buildings include the Scottish National Portrait Gallery and the McEwan Graduation Hall and Medical School for the University of Edinburgh. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Saint Andrew (c. 5 A.D. - c.50 A.D.) Fisherman and Disciple of Jesus Christ. Although not Scottish and never having any connection with the country while alive, St. Andrew is the Patron Saint of Scotland. Some of his relics lie in Scotland. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir William Arrol (1839 - 1913) Engineer. Responsible for the Forth Rail Bridge and the replacement Tay Rail Bridge which were the two most substantial bridges in the world of their time and are still in constant use today. Also worked on Tower Bridge in London. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John Logie Baird (1888 - 1946) Engineer. Inventor of the television and later developed ideas such as colour, 3-D and large screen television. Also took out a patent on fibre-optics, a technology now used to carry many telephone calls and traffic on the internet. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Arthur James Balfour (First Earl of Balfour) (1848 - 1930) Politician. British Prime Minister between 1902 and 1906. The "Balfour Declaration" of 1917 promised the Zionists a home in Palestine. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir James Barrie (1860 - 1937) Author and Playright. Best known for the creation of Peter Pan, the boy who would not grow up. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Cardinal David Beaton (1494 - 1548) Effectively the last Archbishop of St. Andrews. Opposed by John Knox, murdered by Protestant reformers in the same year as he executed George Wishart. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Alexander Graham Bell (1847 - 1922) Born in Edinburgh. Having emigrated to Canada and later the USA, Bell became the inventor of the telephone in 1876. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Rev. Patrick Bell (1800 - 1869) Invented the reaping machine which was a direct precursor of the modern combine harvester. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Joseph Black (1728 - 1799) Chemist. Professor of Anatomy and Chemistry in Glasgow University (1756) and then Professor of Medicine and Chemistry in Edinburgh (1766). Developed the concept of "Latent Heat" and discovered Carbon Dioxide ("Fixed Air"). Regarded as the Father of Quantitative Chemistry. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Andrew Bonar-Law (1858 - 1923) British Prime Minister for only a year. However, joined Lloyd-George in a war-time partnership during World War I. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

James Boswell (1740 - 1795) Biographer and Traveller. Although a lawyer by profession, Boswell travelled widely in Europe, writing accounts as he went in his distinctive style. Perhaps his best known work described his journey with Dr. Samuel Johnson to the Scottish Highlands & Islands. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Lord John Boyd-Orr (1880 - 1971) As Director of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Boyd-Orr was the architect of food policies aimed at helping starving nations, for which he was awarded a Nobel Peace prize in 1947. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

James Braid (1795 - 1860) Surgeon and pioneer in the field of Hypnosis. First used the term 'Neurohypnosis' which was later shortened to simply 'Hypnosis'. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir David Brewster (1781 - 1868) Physicist and Principal of St. Andrews (1838) and then Edinburgh University (1859). Worked with polarised light. Invented the kaleidoscope and suggested it might be useful for designing carpets. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane (1773 - 1860) Soldier and Astronomer, born in Largs, Ayrshire. Governor-General of the Australian state of New South-Wales. Set up an observatory and catalogued more than 7000 stars. The city of Brisbane (Australia) is named after him. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

James Andrew Broun-Lindsay (Marquis of Dalhousie) (1812 - 1860) Governor-General of India. Carried out the peaceful annexation of the Punjab. Organised government across all departments; railways, roads, irrigation. Opened the Ganges Canal. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Alexander Crum Brown (1838 - 1922) Organic chemist, born in Edinburgh. He studied in London and Leipzig before returning to Edinburgh in 1863, holding the chair of Chemistry, which now bears his name, until his death. He devised the system of representing chemical compounds in diagrammatic form, with connecting lines representing bonds. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

George Brown (1818 - 1880) Politician and a founding father of Canada, born and educated in Edinburgh. As an Ontario politician, he favoured a federation of the British Colonies in North America and spoke against the French Canadians, developing the deep divisions which persist today. Founder and editor of the "Toronto Globe". --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

George Mackay Brown (1921 - 1996) Poet and Novelist born on the Island of Orkney. A prolific writer, "The Storm" (1954) was his first work. He suffered from tuberculosis which interrupted his studies at Newbattle Abbey College and the University of Edinburgh. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

James Bruce (1730 - 1794) Explorer, born in Stirlingshire. Discovered the source of the Blue Nile in 1770. Was congratulated by the French, but the English did not believe him. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Robert the Bruce (1274 - 1329) Crowned King of Scotland in 1306, he defeated the english king Edward II at Bannockburn in 1314. He is supposed to have been encouraged towards perseverance and eventual victory by watching a spider build a web in the cave in which he was hiding. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

William Spiers Bruce (1867 - 1921) Oceanographer and Polar Explorer. Studied medicine at Edinburgh University, and immediately thereafter became one of the first of his era to explore the Antarctic (1892). Leader of the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition which discovered Coats Land (1902-04). Founded the Scottish Oceanographical Laboratory in Edinburgh (1907). Advised Scott (1912) that his supply dumps were to far apart to succeed! --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

David Bryce (1803 - 1876) Architect. Proponent of the "Scottish Baronial" style of architecture, examples of his work include Fettes College and the (new) Royal Infirmary in Edinburgh and also more than 100 country houses. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John Buchan (Baron Tweedsmuir) (1875 - 1940) Author, biographer and politician. Perhaps best known for "The Thirty-Nine Steps". Was also a member of parliament and Governor-General of Canada. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Robert Burns (1759 - 1796) Poet and Writer. Amongst many other works he wrote "Auld Lang Syne" which is now sung world-wide at the end of functions and particularly at the end of the year. The Scots celebrate "Burn's Night" on the 25th January. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir William Burrell (1861 - 1951) An eccentric shipowner and compulsive collector of art and antiques. In 1944 he presented 8000 items to the City of Glasgow which form the Burrell Collection, now housed in Pollock Park. He also gave 42 paintings to Berwick-upon-Tweed Art Gallery. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (1836 - 1908) Politician. Liberal Prime Minister of Britain between 1906 and 1908. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Thomas Carlyle (1795 - 1881) Writer and literary critic. Wrote on a diversity of topics from the French Revolution to Oliver Cromwell. Became rector of Edinburgh University in 1866. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Andrew Carnegie (1835 - 1918) U.S. iron and steel magnate and great philanthropist. Born in Dunfermline, in Fife. Gave a considerable proportion of his fortune to the benefit of Scotland, including substantial educational endowments and 10,000 church organs. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Willie Carson (1942 - ) Champion jockey, born in Stirling. The first "Jockey to the Queen" in 1977. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Donald Caskie (1902 - 1983) The Tartan Pimpernell. Minister of the Scot's Kirk in Paris. During World War II he moved to Marseille where he helped British servicemen escape the Nazis to freedom. Eventually arrested, badly treated and sentenced to death, he was released following the intervention of a German clergyman. He returned to the Scot's Kirk which was rebuilt after the war. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

James Chalmers (1782 - 1853) Dundee Inventor, Bookseller and Newspaper publisher. Invented the adhesive postage stamp, which made Rowland Hill's Penny Postal service a practical proposition. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

George Goudie Chisholm (1850 - 1930) Influential Geographer. First lecturer in Geography at the University of Edinburgh (1908), securing the recognition of Geography at that University and author of the Longman's Gazetteer of the World (1895). --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

James (Jim) Clark (1936 - 1968) Twice world champion racing driver and won seven Grand prix races in a row, twenty-five in all, breaking the previous record of twenty-four. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir Dugald Clerk (1854 - 1932) Engineer and inventor of the two-stroke Clerk Cycle Gas Engine (1877). An authority on internal combustion engines, he led engineering research during the First World War. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

George Cleghorn (1716 - 1794) Army surgeon who discovered that quinine bark acted as a cure for Malaria, a form of which was endemic in Britain at that time. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir Ralph Alexander Cochrane (1895 - 1977) Air Chief Marshall of the Royal Air Force. Born in Springfield, Fife. He was responsible for planning bombing raids against German industry during World War II, including the 'Dambusters Raid' in 1943. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Saint Columba (c. 521 - 597) An Irish missionary who founded a monastery on the Island of Iona in 563 in an attempt to convert the Picts. Regarded as Scotland's second Patron Saint after St. Andrew. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Billy Connolly (1942 - ) Glasgow-born comedian and TV personality known as "The Big Yin". Appeared in the U.S. situation-comedy "Head of the Class". --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sean Connery (1930 - ) Actor. Perhaps best known as James Bond, but more recent roles have included "The Untouchables", for which he won an Oscar and the "Hunt for Red October". Also an accomplished amateur golfer. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Tom Conti (1941 - ) Stage and Film Actor. Film roles include "Reuben, Reuben" (1983), for which he received an academy award nomination, "Heavenly Pursuits" (1986) and "Shirley Valentine" (1989). --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Donald Crisp (1880 - 1974) Born in Aberfeldy, emmigrated to the U.S. in 1906. Despite having acted in more than 400 holywood films, being an accomplished director and taking a leading role in film financing, Crisp became known as Scotland's forgotten actor. Roles include "Birth of a Nation", "Intolerance", "National Velvet", starring with Elizabeth Taylor, and "How Green is my Valley" for which he was awarded an Oscar as Best Supporting Actor in 1941. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Archibald Joseph Cronin (1896 - 1981) Trained in medicine, graduating from Glasgow in 1919, but gave this up to become an author. Best known for "Adventures in Two Worlds" (1952) which gave rise to the radio and TV series "Dr Finlay's Casebook". --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

David Dale (1739 - 1806) Millowner and Philanthropist. With Richard Arkwright (the Englishman who pioneered industrial spinning) built cotton mills across Scotland. His son-in-law, Robert Owen, who became the eutopian pioneer of the co-operative movement, partnered him in running his most famous mill at New Lanark, the new-town experiment in social engineering which Dale created in 1785. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Kenny Dalglish (1951 - ) Perhaps Scotland's most successful football player. Born in Glasgow, he joined Jock Stein's Celtic team in 1967, moving to the English team Liverpool in 1977 for a record transfer fee. Won League and European Cups on several occasions and became successful player-manager. One of Scotland's greatest internationalists, playing in successive World Cup championships, and capped 102 times. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir Hugh Dalrymple (Lord Drummore) (1700 - 1753) Invented hollow-pipe drainage. This innovation allowed the drying of water-logged land, bringing large areas into agricultural production. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir James Dewar (1842 - 1923) Physicist and Chemist, born in Kincardine, Fife. Inventor of the vacuum flask. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Robert Dinwiddie (1693 - 1770) Born near Glasgow, was the Lieutenant-Governor of Virginia. He insisted that the colonies should raise money for their own protection. Discovered George Washington's talents and sent him to resist the French. Thus he was an important figure in American History and has been called the "Grandfather of the United States". --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

David Douglas (1798 - 1834) Adventurous Botanist. Born in Scone (Perthshire). Discovered more than 200 new plant species in North America, including the Douglas Fir. Died from injuries received from wild bull having fallen into bull pit in Hawaii. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir John Sholto Douglas (8th Marquis of Queensberry) (1844 - 1900) Devised the "Queensberry Rules" for boxing in 1867. Was tried for libelling the Irish playwright Oscar Wilde, who was said to be having a homosexual relationship with Douglas' son, Lord Alfred. This action led to Wilde's disgrace and imprisonment. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859 - 1930) Author. Creator of the detective Sherlock Holmes. He graduated from Edinburgh University in medicine and practised in Edinburgh, aboard ship and in the Boer War. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Air Chief Marshall Hugh Dowding (1882 - 1970) Born in Moffat. Joined the Royal Flying Corp in its earliest days during the First World War. As Commander in Chief of Fighter Command (1936 - 1940) he directed the defeat of the German Air Force in the "Battle of Britain". Curiously he was interested in spiritualism and claimed to have communicated with airmen who had been killed in action. Elevated to a peerage in 1943. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Thomas Drummond (1797 - 1840) Surveyor and Politician. Invented the "Drummond Light", somewhat similar to the heliograph, which enabled observation of far-distant points (more than 60 miles). This he adapted for use in Lighthouses. Served as Secretary of State for Ireland, during which time he made clear to the absentee landlords that "property has its duties as well as its rights". Also pioneered railway devlopment in Ireland. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John Boyd Dunlop (1840 - 1921) Inventor. Developed the pneumatic tyre which was to improve the comfort of cyclists and later motorists. Contrary to popular opinion, Dunlop did not invent the pneumatic tyre, it was actually invented by Robert William Thomson. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sheena Easton (Sheena Orr) (1959 - ) Pop singer, born in Glasgow. Career boosted by the BBC TV documentary "Big Time" which showed how EMI manufactured a "star" from an unknown. Notable for the theme for the James Bond film "For your eyes only" in 1981. "9 to 5" was a top ten hit. Now based in USA. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir William Fairbairn (1789 - 1874) Born in Kelso, he became an engineer. He developed the idea of using tubular steel as a construction material, which was much stronger than solid steel. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Adam Ferguson (1723 - 1816) Born in Logierait, Perthshire, he became Professor of Moral Philosophy at Edinburgh. He introduced the method of studying humankind in groups and is father of the subject now called "Sociology". --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Patrick Ferguson (1744 - 1780) Born in Pitfour, Aberdeenshire, Ferguson invented the breech-loading rifle, which was capable of firing seven shots per minute. With the help of this weapon, the Americans were defeated at the Battle of Brandywine (1777). He was killed at the Battle of King's Mountain in South Carolina, USA. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir William Fettes (1750 - 1836) Merchant and philanthropist, who made his fortune from tea and wine. Left money to found Fettes College (1870), designed by David Bryce. The College was intended for the education of poor and orphaned children, but is now one of Scotland's top private schools, although retaining a tradition of scholarships for poorer children. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir Alexander Fleming (1881 - 1955) Born in Ayrshire, he discovered the world's first antibiotic drug - Penicillin. This was as a result of an "accident" where mould was allowed to grow on a bacterial culture. Fleming was knighted and received the Nobel Prize in 1944. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir Sandford Fleming (1827 - 1915) Canadian railway engineer, born in Kirkcaldy. Surveyed many of the major Canadian railway routes. Became Chief Engineer of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1872. In 1884, devised a system of standard time which was internationally recognised. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir William Russell Flint (1880 - 1969) Artist and illustrator, born in Edinburgh. His style was much imitated. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Alistair Forbes-Mackay (1878 - 1914) Navy surgeon who reached the Magnetic South Pole (as part of Shackleton's expedition) in 1909, three years before Amoundsen and Scott reached the Geographic South Pole. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Rev. Alexander Forsyth (1769 - 1848) Inventor of the percussion cap. Fond of game shooting, he realised the major problem with the flint-lock gun was its unreliability in damp conditions. The percussion cap ignited an enclosed charge when struck by a hammer. This was later developed into the modern bullet. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Bill Forsyth (1946 - ) Director and Filmmaker. Noted for "That Sinking Feeling" (1979), "Gregory's Girl" (1980) and "Local Hero" (1983). --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Will Fyffe (1885 - 1947) Comedian and singer. Born in Dundee, he began in the Music Halls but went on the star on stage and film. Perhaps best remembered for his song "I belong to Glasgow". --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

William Ged (1690 - 1749) Inventor of the "Lost Wax" process of metal casting, used for reproducing delicate designs, especially in the jewellery trade. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Jenny Geddes (c.1600 - 1660) An Edinburgh stall-holder, famous for a solitary act of defiance. She threw a stool at the Bishop in St. Giles in protest at the introduction of the much resented English prayerbook, which was regarded as Roman Catholic by Scottish Presbyterians. Her words were "Thou false thief; dost thou say Mass at ma lug?" --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir Patrick Geddes (1854 - 1932) Regarded as the father of town planning; Living in Edinburgh, he did much of his pioneering work in Edinburgh's Old Town. Planned building and cities in many countries including India and Palestine. Born in Ballater, Geddes also excelled in Botany and became Professor of Botany in Dundee. Spent the last eight years of his life in France. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir Archibald Geikie (1835 - 1924) Geologist, specialising in volcanic geology and microscopic examination of rocks. Joined the Geological Survey and led the survey in Scotland. Between 1870 and 1881 he was Professor of Geology at the University of Edinburgh, and then Director General of the U.K. Geological Survey until 1901. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

James Geikie (1839 - 1915) Geologist. Brother of Archibald Geikie. Noted for his contribution to mapping the geology of Scotland. Wrote the standard work of the day on the glacial period. He succeeded his brother as Professor of Geology at the University of Edinburgh a post which he held until 1914. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Lewis Grassic Gibbon (James Leslie Mitchell) (1901 - 1935) Journalist turned author best known for his trilogy "Sunset Song", "Cloud Howe" and "Grey Granite". His writing was rooted in The Mearns (in the Country of Kincardineshire). --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Evelyn Glennie (1965 - ) Born in Aberdeen. Despite being deaf since childhood, Evelyn Glennie has become one of the world's most talented percussionists, performing with many of the greatest orchestras. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Thomas Blake Glover (1838 - 1911) Born in Aberdeenshire, Glover went first to Shanghai in China and then to Nagasaki as agent of the Jardine Matheson trading company. He was awarded the highest "Order of the Rising Sun" for his contribution to modernising Japan, through industrialisation and smuggling Japanese students abroad to gain a better education. He may have provided the model for Puccini's 1904 Opera "Madame Butterfly". --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Niel Gow (1727 - 1807) Son of a Perthshire Weaver, he was fine fiddler and regarded as the father of Strathspey and Reel music, composing many popular tunes. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Thomas Graham (1805 - 1869) Born in Glasgow and educated at Glasgow University. Formulated "Graham's Law" on the diffusion of gases. Father of colloid chemistry. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Kenneth Grahame (1859 - 1932) Author. His best known work is "The Wind in the Willows", later dramatised by A.A. Milne as "Toad of Toad Hall". --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

James Gregory (1638 - 1675) Inventor of the reflecting telescope, which was developed three years later by the Englishman Sir Isaac Newton. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Neil Gunn (1891 - 1973) Novelist, born in Caithness. One of the foremost novelists of the twentieth century Scottish literary renaissance. Perhaps best known for "The Silver Darlings" and "Highland River". --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Earl Haig (1861 - 1928) Field Marshall. Commanded the allied troops on the Western Front during the First World War. Later criticised for conduct of the campaign because of the very high casualty figures. Founded the Earl Haig Fund for the assistance of disabled ex-servicemen (poppy appeal). --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

James Keir Hardie (1856 - 1915) Radical Socialist. A miner who became a founder of the British Labour Party. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Matthew Forster Heddle (1828 - 1897) Mineralogist and Chemist. Born in Hoy on the Island of Orkney. Enthusiastic collector of minerals; his collection is now held by the National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh. Wrote the seminal work on the Mineralogy of Scotland, published in 1901. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

David Octavius Hill (1802 - 1870) Pioneer of Photography, also a Portrait and Landscape Painter. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir Alexander Douglas Home (Lord Home) (1903 - 1995) British Prime Minister (1963). Born in London, but of a Scottish family. Heir to the Scottish Earldom of Home, which he renounced to become Prime Minister. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

David Hume (1711 - 1776) Philosopher, agnostic and leading figure of the Scottish Enlightenment. Hume wrote on human nature, politics and introduced the concept of social history. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

William Hunter (1718 - 1783) Pioneer in the field of Obstetrics. Born in Lanarkshire and educated at Glasgow University, he gained his reputation in the teaching hospitals of London. Perhaps best known for his collection of anatomical specimens, coins and minerals which he left to the Glasgow Museum which took its name from his, the Hunterian Museum. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

James Hutton (1726 - 1797) Father of modern Geology. His theory of Uniformitarianism was the basis of the explanation of the geological history of the earth, which had in his words "no vestige of a beginning, no concept of an end". Published his "Theory of the Earth" in 1785. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Elsie Inglis (1864 - 1917) A leading surgeon and suffragette. She improved maternity facilities and fought for better healthcare for women in Scotland. She set up a maternity hosptial in Edinburgh staffed only by women. During the First World War, she set up hospitals for the troops in Serbia and Russia. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

James VI (1566 - 1625) Son of the Catholic Mary Queen of Scots, who had been brought up a Prestbyterian. In 1603, on the death of Queen Elizabeth I, he acceded to the English throne as James I. Although this "Union of the Crowns" resulted in James being King of both countries, the countries remained separate for another 104 years. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John Paul Jones (1747 - 1792) Born in Dumfriesshire, he joined the navy and spent time in Russia and France during the French Revolution. Most notably he established the U.S. Navy. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

James Robertson Justice (1905 - 1975) Portly actor born into a distinguished Scottish legal family. His most famous roles were perhaps in the "Doctor" series of comedy films in which he portrayed the partriarchal surgeon Sir Lancelot Spratt. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Saint Kentigern (c. 518 - 613) The Apostle of Cumbria and Founder of Glasgow. He was born in Culross in Fife. He founded a monastery on the Clyde at the site of what is now Glasgow and was buried in Glasgow Catherdral. Also known as Saint Mungo. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

William Kidd (Captain Kidd) (1645 - 1701) Infamous pirate and privateer, born in Greenock, Renfrewshire. He traded a small merchant fleet from New York. Fought as a privateer to protect Anglo- American trade routes in the West Indies and in 1691 was rewarded by New York City. Employed by the British Navy to stamp out piracy in the Indian Ocean, but instead became one of them. Surrendered in Boston in 1699, transported to London, tried and hanged. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John Knox (1505 - 1572) Churchman and father of the Protestant Reformation in Scotland, whereby the Roman Catholic church was replaced by a disestablished, democratic, presbyterian Church of Scotland, founded on Calvanist principles. Bitterly opposed by the catholic Mary Queen of Scots. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Dr. Robert Knox (1791 - 1862) Anatomist working in the Medical School in Edinburgh. He received his specimens from the gruesome resurrectionists, Burke and Hare, who later turned to murder to satisfy Knox's demand for bodies. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir Harry Lauder (1870 - 1950) Singer and Music Hall Entertainer. Came from a poor family to become a world-famous entertainer. Did much to foster an image of Scots as kilt-wearing, whisky drinking and careful with money. Well loved at home and in the U.S.A. for songs such as "Roamin' in the Gloamin'" and "A wee Doch an Dorus". --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Charles Lawson (1794 - 1873) Botanist and Traveller. Son of an Edinburgh seed merchant, Lawson introduced the Austrian Pine and Cypress trees to Britain. The now-popular Cypress variety he introduced still bears his name, Cupressus Lawsonii. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Eric Henry Liddell (1902 - 1945) Record-breaking athlete who won Gold and Bronze Medals in the 1924 Paris Olympic Games. His life is remembered in the 1981 film "Chariots of Fire". --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

James Lind (1716 - 1794) Naval Physician. Rediscovered the cure for scurvy (citrus fruits) and ensured that the British Admiralty systematically applied it. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir Thomas Lipton (1850 - 1931) Grocer and entrepreneur. Born in Port Glasgow, Lipton revolutionised the retail grocery trade, developing many marketing techniques which are used by supermarkets today. He ensured supplies by buying, for example, tea plantations in Sri Lanka. He quickly became a millionaire, enabling him to challenge consistently but unsuccessfully for the Americas Cup (yachting), he also started the World Cup in football (soccer) in 1910. He left a substantial benefaction to the City of Glasgow. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Joseph Lister (1827 - 1912) A surgeon who pioneered the use of antiseptics and thereby dramatically reduced the number of post-opertive deaths due to infection. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir Henry Duncan Littlejohn (1826 - 1914) Medical and health pioneer. Born in Edinburgh and a graduate of the University of Edinburgh, later becoming Professor of Medical Jurisprudence (1897). As Edinburgh's first Medical Officer of Health (1862) he improved sanitation and instituted the legal requirement to notify occurrences of infectious diseases, allowing the authorities to act to prevent epidemics. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

David Livingstone (1813 - 1873) Explorer and medical missionary. First white man to travel the length of Lake Tanganyika, discovered Victoria Falls and set out to discover the source of the Nile, but died before acheiving his aim. When Henry Stanley was sent to look for Livingstone, he uttered the famous greeting "Dr Livingstone, I presume". --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Lulu (Marie McDonald Lawrie) (1948 - ) Pop singer, entertainer and TV personality, born in Glasgow. Hits include "Shout" (1964). Sang title song and acted in "To Sir with Love" (1966). Married to Maurice Gibb (of the Bee Gees) between 1969 and 1973. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John McAdam (1756 - 1836) Surveyor and builder of roads. Developed the process of "Macadamisation" which involves covering a road with small broken stones to form a hard surface. This led to tarmacadam (or tarmac), which is still used to cover roads today. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir Robert McAlpine (1847 - 1934) Known as "Concrete Bob", he as an entrepreneur built up a large building and civil engineering firm. McAlpine was also a pioneer in the use of concrete and labour-saving machinery. He left school at 10 to work in a coal mine, but went on to build roads and public buildings including Wembley Stadium in London. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Lord MacBeth (c.1005 - 1057) The last of Scotland's Gaelic Kings. Grandson of Malcolm II. Although best known as the character in William Shakespeare's play of the same name, in reality he could not have been more different from this villainous portrayal. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Norman MacCaig (1910 - 1996) Poet. Regarded as the greatest Scottish poet of his generation. Awarded Queen's Gold Medal for poetry in 1986. Close friend of Hugh MacDiarmid. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Hamish MacCunn (1868 - 1916) Composer. His best known work is perhaps "Land of the Mountain and the Flood". --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Hugh MacDiarmid (1892 - 1978) Poet, nationalist and socialist. His best known work is perhaps "A drunk man looks at the thistle". A founder of the Scottish National Party. MacDiarmid was actually a pen-name, his real name was Christopher Murry Grieve. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Flora MacDonald (1722 - 1790) Native of South Uist in the Outer Hebrides, she helped Bonnie Prince Charlie to safety following the failed rebellion of 1745. She later emigrated to North Carolina and was active recruiting Scots to fight for the British in the American War of Independence. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Dr. William McEwan (1827 - 1913) Brewer and Philanthropist. Born in Alloa, McEwan set up his Fountain Brewery in Edinburgh in 1856 (which is still there today). He later entered parliament and gave significant donations to Edinburgh, and its University including money to build the McEwan Hall. Perhaps best known today for McEwan's Export beer. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

James Ramsay MacDonald (1866 - 1937) Politician and British Prime Minister. Led the first Labour government in 1924. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir John Alexander MacDonald (1815 - 1891) First Prime Minister of Canada. Born in Glasgow, died in Ottawa, Canada. He was central to bringing about the confederation of Canada (1867) and the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Kirkpatrick Macmillan (1813 - 1878) Inventor. Invented the bicycle, but never patented it and it was therefore widely copied. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Rob Roy MacGregor (1671 - 1734) Notorious cattle thief and Jacobite Guerilla. Walter Scott much exaggerated MacGregor's fame, painting him as a defender of the Highland way of life. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

William Topaz McGonagall (1830 - 1902) An eccentric figure, born in Edinburgh but lived most of his life in Dundee. Revered as "The World's Worst Poet" composing such rhymes as "The Tay Bridge Disaster". --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir Alexander Mackenzie (1764 - 1820) Born on the Isle of Lewis. Emigrated to Cananda and worked as a fur trader. The first to journey down the river which bears his name. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Charles Mackintosh (1766 - 1843) Inventor and Entrepreneur. By applying naptha to rubber sheeting strengthened by cloth he invented the fabric for the rain-coat which bears his name. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868 - 1928) Architect and Designer. Influential Glasgow designer whose style was a unique blend of art nouveau and scottish celtic traditionalism. His most famous building is the Glasgow School of Art, the design of which was much copied by contemporaries. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

William McTaggart (1835 - 1910) Reknown painter of Scottish landscapes. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir Patrick Manson (1844 - 1922) Born in Old Meldrum, Aberdeenshire, he was a pioneer of Tropical Medicine, developing it as a distinct field of study. Showed that Malaria was carried by mosquito, and also did valuable research on sleeping sickness and beri-beri. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Saint Margaret (c. 1045 - 1093) The Saintly Queen. Hungarian-born queen of Malcolm Canmore (Malcolm III). She re-founded the monastery on the Island of Iona (originally founded by Saint Columba) and built an abbey at Dunfermline, where she was buried. Canonized by Pope Innocent IV in 1251. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Mary, Queen of Scots (1542 - 1587) Last Roman Catholic monarch of Scotland. Although remembered as a heroic figure, she was a poor ruler, lacking the political acumen of her cousin Queen Elizabeth I of England. After religious disputes with John Knox and political intrigue involving her nobles, she was imprisoned and forced to abdicate in 1567 in favour of her son James VI. She was eventually executed for treason. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

James Clerk Maxwell (1831 - 1879) Mathematician and Physicist. Contributed significantly to the study of electro-magnetism and prepared the way for quantum physics. Ranks along with Newton and Einstein as one of the World's greatest physicists. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Andrew Meikle (1719 - 1811) Inventor of the threshing machine. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Hugh Miller (1802 - 1856) Stone Mason turned geologist, writer, journalist and religious reformer. Collected and described fossils from many Scottish localities. His 1841 book "The Old Red Sandstone" remains a classic work. Also an important collector of Scottish folklore. A leader of the Disruption of the Church of Scotland in 1843, his religious views led to his bitter opposition to the emerging theories of evolution. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Alexander Monro (Primus) (1697 - 1767) Anatomist and Professor of Anatomy at the University of Edinburgh. Founder of the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary and established Edinburgh as a major centre of medical teaching and research. He was succeeded in the Chair of Anatomy by his son and grandson (who shared the same name) a lineage which spanned 126 years. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Alexander Monro (Secundus) (1733 - 1817) Anatomist. Succeeded his father as Professor of Anatomy at the University of Edinburgh. Discovered the lymphatic systems, established the structure and function of the nervous system and noted the physiological effects of drugs. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John Muir (1834 - 1914) Naturalist and Conservationist, born in Dunbar. Founder of the U.S. National Park system and regarded as the father of the modern environmental movement. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Saint Mungo (c. 518 - 613) See Saint Kentigern. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Neil Munro (1864 - 1930) Novelist and Journalist, born at Inveraray. Author of the "Para Handy" stories under the pen-name Hugh Foulis. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir Roderick Impey Murchison (1792 - 1871) Geologist and Geographer. Born in Tarradale. In 1835 he established the Silurian geological system, and with Sedgwick, the Devonian system. Led a survey of the Russian Empire (1840 - 1845) and predicted the discovery of gold in Australia. A founder of the Royal Geological Society of London. The Murchison Falls (Uganda) and the Murchison River (Australia) are named after him. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

William Murdock (1754 - 1839) Engineer and inventor of coal-gas lighting in 1792. Born in Ayrshire. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John Napier (1550 - 1617) Mathematician and Astronomer. Devised "Napier's Rods" or "Napier's Bones" which permitted easy multiplication by addition, and this led to him defining the concept of logarithms. Also invented the decimal point. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Alexander Nasmyth (1758 - 1840) Nasmyth started his career as an apprentice coach-painter in Edinburgh. With the encouragement of Allan Ramsay, he trained in art technique in London and travelled in Italy, which greatly influenced his work. Became an acclaimed painter of portraits (including Robert Burns) and an important painter of Scottish landscapes. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

James Nasmyth (1808 - 1890) Born in Edinburgh and youngest son of the emminent landscape artist, Alexander Nasmyth. Started a foundry business and became a pioneer in the design and building of steam-powered machine tools, such as the steam hammer, planing machine, pile-driver, steam lathe etc. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

James Beaumont Neilson (1792 - 1865) Invented the hot blast oven, which was a great advance in the iron industry. His process reduced the amount of coal needed to produce iron, and greatly increased efficiency to satisfy the demands of the railway and shipbuilding industries. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Saint Ninian (c. 360 - 432) The first known Christian missionary in Scotland. Perhaps born in Northumbria (England) he lived on the shores of the Solway Firth, where he founded a mission. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

David Niven (1909 - 1983) Kirriemuir-born actor. Appeared in many film roles and was paradoxically regarded by many americans as the archetypal englishman! --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Richard Noble (1946 - ) Holder of the world land spped record. Born in Edinburgh. Noble became the fastest man on earth in 1983 in the Nevada desert reaching 633 mph. He went on to lead the Thrust SSC team, which broke the speed of sound reaching 763 mph in 1997. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Robert Dale Owen (1801 - 1877) Scottish-born U.S. social reformer and anti-slavery campainer. Son of Robert Owen (founder of the co-operative movement) and grandson of David Dale. In 1825, he accompanied his father to set up the New Harmony colony in Indiana. Entered the U.S. congress in 1843. U.S. Ambassador to India (1853 - 1858). --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Mungo Park (1771 - 1806) Explorer. He mapped large areas of the interior of Africa for the first time, determined the course of the Niger and died trying to find its source. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

James Paterson (1770 - 1840) Born and lived in Musselburgh. Paterson developed the process which is still used to make fishing nets by machine. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

William Paterson (1658 - 1719) Merchant and Politician. Born in Tinwald, Dumfriesshire, he founded the Bank of England in 1694. He was also the main proponent of the Darien Farce, which involved establishing a Scottish trading colony in Central America. The colony was a disaster, and Paterson's wife and child died. He promoted the Union of the Parliaments, which was at least in part driven by an attempt to make good his and Scotland's losses at Darien. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Saint Patrick (c. 410 - c.450) The Patron Saint of Ireland. He is said to have been born near Kirkpatrick on the River Clyde. Went to Ireland in 432. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

James Pillans (1778 - 1864) Educated at Edinburgh University, he took classes given by Dugald Stewart and Joseph Black. As headmaster of the Old High School of Edinburgh, he was an early advocate of compulsory education. Later (1820-1863) he became Professor of Humanity & Laws in the University of Edinburgh. He invented the blackboard and coloured chalks and used them to teach Geography. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Allan Pinkerton (1819 - 1884) U.S. detective, born in the Gorbals, Glasgow. Left Scotland hurriedly in 1842, following his involvement in left-wing protests. In 1852, he formed the first detective agency, in Chicago, which solved a series of train robberies. In 1861, he foiled an assassination plot in Baltimore, while guarding Abraham Lincoln (the U.S. President) on his way to his inauguration. Head of the U.S. Secret Service 1861 - 1862. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother (1900 - ) Although born in London, Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon was brought up at Glamis Castle in Angus. The daughter of the Earl of Strathmore, she married HRH the Duke of York in 1923, who became King George VI in 1936, on the abdication of his brother Edward VIII. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir Henry Raeburn (1756 - 1823) An Edinburgh painter. He is particularly noted for his portraits of most of the society figures of his day, including Sir Walter Scott and David Hume. The University of Edinburgh has a major collection of his works. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Allan Ramsay (1681 - 1758) Poet and bookseller, born in Leadhills. Also founded the first travelling library in the U.K. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Allan Ramsay (1713 - 1784) Artist. Son of Allan Ramsay. Studied under William Hogarth in London. Travelled through Europe to Rome, which influenced his work. Returning to Edinburgh in 1738, he painted portraits and enjoyed Edinburgh society, making friends including David Hume and Adam Smith. In London he painted the portraits of Royalty, and was so much in demand that he employed others such as Alexander Nasmyth to assist him. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir William Ramsay (1852 - 1916) Chemist. Ramsay was born in Glasgow and became Professor of Chemistry at Bristol and then University College, London. Chiefly responsible for the discovery of the rare gases Helium, Argon, Neon, Krypton and Xenon. Also worked in radio-activity. He spread scientific interest to other parts of the British Empire, including setting up the Indian Institute for Science at Bangalore. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Lord Reith (1889 - 1971) Engineer and Broadcasting Pioneer, born in Stonehaven. First general manager of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) in 1922. Built the BBC into the world-respected institution it remains today. Went on to be MP for Southampton in 1940, and Minister of Works (1940-42). --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John Rennie (1761 - 1801) Engineer, born in Phantassie, East Lothian. Began his career in agricultural land improvement. Went on to build docks from Wick to Torquay, including the London and East India docks. Also in London, the Southwark, Waterloo and London Bridges (the latter is now re-erected in Arizona). Buried in St. Paul's Cathedral. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

William Robertson-Smith (1845 - 1894) Professor of Aberdeen University and biblical scholar. Charged with heresy, and dismissed from his job, after questionning the validity of parts of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. Became editor of Encyclopaedia Brittanica and Professor of Arabic at Cambridge. Today historical criticism of the bible is considered valid by scholars. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir James Clark Ross (1800 - 1862) Antarctic Explorer. Claimed Antarctica for Queen Victoria in 1841. Named the twin Antarctic volcanoes after his ships Erebus and Terror. Gave his name to the Ross Sea, Ross Island, Ross Ice Shelf and Ross Dependency. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir Walter Scott (1771 - 1832) Great Scottish patriot, writer and poet. Educated at the Old High School in Edinburgh, he then studied Law at the University of Edinburgh and became an advocate. He did much towards identifying and nurturing a Scottish cultural identity. His literary works include the Waverley Novels, but also he was a translator, biographer (of Napoleon) and passionate collector of all things Scottish. He was buried in the ruins of Dryburgh Abbey. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John Duns Scotus (1265 - 1308) Philosopher and Theologian. Born in Duns, Berwickshire, educated at Balliol College, Oxford. Reknown for his scepticism, which led to the word "Dunses" or "Dunces" being used to describe those who were regarded as not being very clever. In 1991, the Vatican elevated Scotus to the status of "venerable", the first step on the route to Saint-hood. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Alexander Selkirk (1676 - 1721) Seaman and Castaway. Born in the fishing village of Lower Largo in Fife. Selkirk was the model for Daniel Defoe's "Robinson Crusoe" (published 1719), having lived for more than four years on the uninhabited island of Juan Fernandez. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Bill Shankly (1913 - 1981) Football manager who built the English team of Liverpool into a world-beating side, ensuring success long after his departure. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Lord Emmanuel (Manny) Shinwell (1884 - 1986) Labour politician, born in London, but brought up in Glasgow. Became a "Radical Clydesider". Elected an MP in 1931, defeated Ramsay MacDonald in Seaham Harbour (County Durham, England) in 1935. As chairman of the Labour party from 1942, he wrote the manifesto which gave labour their great general election victory of 1945. Nationalised the mines as Minister of Fuel & Power (1946); Secretary of State for Defence (1947 - 1951). --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir Robert Sibbald (1641 - 1722) Born in Edinburgh, educated at the High School and Edinburgh University. Established the first botanical garden in the city. Founded the Royal College of Physicians. Was also Cartographer-Royal for Scotland writing books on the topography of Fife and Stirlingshire. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Alastair Sim (1900 - 1976) Edinburgh-born actor. Particularly remembered for his comedy roles. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir James Young Simpson (1811 - 1870) Obstetrician, and son of a baker. Pioneer in the use of anaesthetics, particularly chloroform, developing its use in surgery and midwifery. He championed its use against medical and religious opposition. Queen Victoria used chloroform during child-birth, and this brought general acceptance. Also pioneered obstetric techniques and responsible for much reform of hospital practice. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Mary Slessor (1848 - 1915) A Dundee mill girl who became a great missionary in West Africa. Called 'Great Mother' by Nigerians, she provided healthcare and education and stamped out barbaric tribal practices such as human sacrifice. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

James Small (1730 - 1793) Inventor of the iron plough, replacing the existing cumbersome and less robust wooden ploughs. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

William Smellie (1740 - 1795) Printer. Published the first edition of the "Encylopaedia Britannica" (1768) and the Edinburgh edition of Robert Burns' Poems (1787). He also prepared the ground for the publication of the first Statistical Account of Scotland. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Adam Smith (1723 - 1790) Economist. His book "Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations" was the corner-stone of the concept of political economy. Born in Kirkaldy, he was a professor at the University of Glasgow. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir William Alexander Smith (1854 - 1914) Born in Thurso, Caithness. Founded the "Boy's Brigade in 1883". --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John Smith (1938 - 1994) Member of Parliament and Leader of the Labour Party. Widely respected for his integrity, intelligence and humanity. Died in opposition, while widely expected to become a British Prime Minister. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Charles Piazzi Smyth (1819 - 1900) Astronomer Royal for Scotland. Instigated Edinburgh's "One O'Clock Gun". Realised that cities were not the ideal place for astronomical observations, and thus founded an observatory on the site of what is now Las Palmas Observatory in the Canary Islands. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Muriel Spark (1918 - ) Author. Her best known work is "The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie" which is a portrait of a highly unconventional teacher at an Edinburgh Girl's School. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir Basil Spence (1907 - 1976) Architect who attracted some controversy for his contemporary designs. Although born in India, Spence was educate and spent much of his working life in Edinburgh. Initially working for William Kinimonth at the practice of Rowand Anderson & Paul, his worked ranged from housing to commercial and public buildings. Perhaps Coventry Cathedral is his most notable. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir John Steell (1804 - 1891) Sculptor, born in Aberdeen. Steell was Queen Victoria's Sculptor in Scotland, and created many of the public statues in Edinburgh, including the equestrain statue of the Duke of Wellington outside Register House, which was dubbed 'the Iron Duke in bronze by Steell' and the statue of Sir Walter Scott at the centre of the Scott Monument. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Jock (John) Stein (1922 - 1985) Footballer and Football Manager. Born in Lanarkshire, he led Celtic to League Scottish and European Cup victories. Manager of Scottish national team which qualified for the World Cup Final in 1982. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Robert Stevenson (1772 - 1850) Born in Glasgow, he was a notable builder of Lighthouses. He solved many of the complex engineering problem relating to the harsh environment in which they were constructed. Grand-father of Robert Louis Stevenson. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Robert Louis Stevenson (1850 - 1894) Author. His works included "Kidnapped" and "Treasure Island". Suffered from poor health and died in Samoa. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Andy Stewart (1933 - 1994) Comedian and Singer. Perhaps best known for his Scottish TV show "The White Heather Club" which began in 1960 and his song "Ye canna shove yer granny off a bus". --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Dugald Stewart (1753 - 1828) Published "Outlines of Moral Philosophy". A follower of the Common-Sense Philosophy, he systematised the doctrine of the Scottish School, allowing full share to psychological considerations. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Jackie Stewart (1939 - ) Racing car driver, who won the World Championship three times, turned Olympic clay pigeon shooter. In 1997, together with his son, he launched his own Formula One motor racing team. He was born in Dumbarton. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie) (1720 - 1788) The "Young Pretender", grandson of James VII of Scotland (James II of England), who was exiled by William of Orange. The french-backed Jacobite Rebellion of 1745 was intended to restore him to the throne, but ended in disarray and bloody defeat at Culloden (in 1746). He escaped to France with the help of Flora MacDonald and lived comfortably in exile. He died, despondent and a drunk, and is buried in St. Peter's, Rome. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John McDouall Stuart (1815 - 1866) Explorer of Australia. First to cross Australia from South to North. Mount Stuart is named after him. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

William Symington (1763 - 1831) Engineer. Developed the first steam-powered marine engine used to power the world's first paddle steamer. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Thomas Telford (1757 - 1834) Engineer, native of Dumfriesshire. Notable as builder of many bridges, docks and canals. These include the Bridge over the Atlantic Ocean (the Menai Straits) linking Anglesey and Wales, Dean Bridge in Edinburgh and the Caledonian Canal. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Robert William Thomson (1822 - 1873) Invented the vulcanised rubber pneumatic tyre. He patented his invention in 1845, which was successfully tested in London, however it was abandoned because it was thought too expensive for common use. The tyre was re-invented by John Dunlop in 1888. Thomson's invention is commemorated by a plaque in his native Stonehaven. He also patented the fountain pen (1849) and a steam traction engine (1867). --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

William Thomson (Lord Kelvin of Largs) (1824 - 1907) Mathematician and Physicist. Brought up in Scotland, although born in Ireland, he is perhaps best known for the absolute temperature scale which takes his name (Kelvin). --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

William Wallace (1274 - 1305) Outlaw and defender of Scottish independence. Defeated the army of Edward I at the Battle of Stirling Bridge. Shortly after Wallace's execution, Robert the Bruce was able to re-establish Scotland's independence. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir Robert Alexander Watson-Watt (1892 - 1973) Physicist, born in Brechin. Developed and introduced RADAR during World War II. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

James Watt (1736 - 1819) Developed the steam engine into a practical source of power and invented the governor as a control device. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Jim Watt (1948 - ) Boxer, born in Glasgow. Won the WBC World Lightweight title in 1979. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Viscount William Whitelaw (1918 - ) Politician. Brought up in Nairn. Governmental posts include Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, Secretary of State for Employement, Home Secretary and Deputy Prime Minister to Margaret Thatcher. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Roy Williamson (1937 - 1990) Half of the Scottish folk band "The Corries" who, in the 1960's, wrote "Flower of Scotland", which has subsequently been adopted as Scotland's unofficial National Anthem. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Peter Williamson (1730 - 1799) Known as Indian Peter, he was kidnapped from his native Aberdeenshire and sold into slavery in America. Captured by Cherokee indians, he escaped to join the army and was then imprisoned by the French. He eventually returned to Edinburgh, publishing its first street directory, set up a postal service and then successfully sued Aberdeen officials for slave trading. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sir Daniel Wilson (1816 - 1892) Archaeologist, born in Edinburgh and educated at the University of Edinburgh. Became Professor of History and English Literature in Toronto in 1853 and President of that University from 1881. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Princess Margaret Rose Windsor (1930 - ) Sister of Queen Elizabeth II and daughter of George VI and Elizabeth. Princess Margaret was born in Glamis Castle, Angus. She married Anthony Armstrong-Jones (Lord Snowdon), a noted society photographer, but were divorced in 1978, a rare and scandalous situation within Royalty even then. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

George Wishart (1513 - 1546) Lutheran Reformer and Martyr. Burned at the stake for his faith in St. Andrews by Cardinal David Beaton. Role model for John Knox. Commemorated by, for example, the Wishart Arch in Dundee, from which he used to preach. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John Witherspoon (1723 - 1794) Clergyman born in Gifford, East Lothian. Minister at Beith, then Paisley. Emigrated to U.S.A. in 1768 to become President of Princeton University (then the College of New Jersey). He taught and influenced many future leaders of the US. Helped frame the US Declaration of Independence and was one of the signatories. Also coined the word "Americanism". --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Oor Wullie (1936 - ) An almost legendary cartoon character appearing weekly in the almost as legendary "Sunday Post" newspaper, published by Dundee company of D.C. Thomson. This mischievous dungaree-wearing boy is known for uttering "Jings! Crivvens! Help ma Boab!". He was created by Dudley D. Watkins, also known for The Broons and Desperate Dan. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

James Young (1811 - 1883) Chemical Engineer. Developed the process of refining oil and created the world's first oil industry based on the Oil Shales of West Lothian, close to Edinburgh. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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